History of energy
About energy history in brief
It is not for nothing said that “Energy is the bread of industry”. The more the industry and engineering are developed the more energy they need. There is a special term “advance energy development”. This means that none of the industrial enterprises, none of new cities or just houses can be built before the source of the energy that they will consume is determined or newly created. That’s why we can easily estimate the technical and economical power by quality of produced and used energy. The English of this is – we can estimate the wealth of any state. Nature stores of energy are great. Solar cells, winds and water mass in motion carry the energy. It is also stored in wood substance, in gas, oil and coal plays. The energy hidden in nucleus substance is almost unlimited. But not all the energy forms can be used directly. For long history of energetic a lot of technologies and methods of energy production and transforming in the forms that people need were accumulated.
Properly human being became himself only when he learned how to get and to use the heat energy. The fire flame was firstly lighted by the first people who could not understand the nature of the fire, but this way of transformation of chemical energy into heat energy was saved and being used for millenniums.
People added muscular energy of animals to the energy of their own muscles and the fire. They invented technique of chemically bounded water removing from loam with the help of heat energy of the fire - pottery kilns where durable ceramic products were produced. Certainly the human being learned the processes occurring during that many millenniums later. Later people invented mills – equipment for energy of water stream and wind transforming into mechanical energy of running shaft. But only after steam engine, internal-combustion engine, water, steam and gas turbines, electric generator and motor were invented mankind received sufficiently powerful devices at its disposal. They can transform nature energy and its other types convenient for application and receiving huge volume of work. The search of new energy sources was not finished yet: accumulators, solar cells, transformer of solar energy into electrical one, jet engines and atompiles were invented (already in the middle of XX century). With the help of energy machine one type of energy (called primary) is taken out and transformed into another type of energy called secondary one. The machine of one type doesn’t cope very often with such “remake”. In this case the energy of necessary type is produced by the serial buffering in the chain of energy machines of different types.
For example water, steam and gas turbines, internal-combustion engine brings generator rotor to rotation transforming mechanical energy into electrical one. If a steam turbine is used energy installation should be equipped with boilers with furnace (transforming chemical energy into kinetic energy of the steam) or with steam generators with reactors (atompiles) (here the steam is developed due to the energy exuded under nucleus fission). However the more machines are involved the higher are the energy loses. That’s why the scientists and engineers should solve a very important problem: to develop machines and technological processes which will minimize the energy loses. Final consumers of produced energy are various vehicles and working machine tools, light sources, control devices, communications facilities, information-processing equipment, heat sources – all known equipment in brief.