If electric current of essentially larger volume than usually is conducted or transported by electric conductor more quickly than in common conditions this is called superconductivity.
But the most important result of superconductivity is absence of electrical energy loses in the process of its transportation. It is achieved by means of metallic resistance absence in superconductive electrical conductor (superconductor). In other words there are no barriers on the way of electric current that exist in a common electric conductor in our houses and flats thanks to which TV, play box or refrigerator work at our homes. We may say that superconductivity is a small step towards long-standing dream of human being coming true – the dream about such device development that would operate without run-out, wouldn’t need neither batteries nor other energy sources. Like magic wand or seven-league boots.
This device is called perpetuum mobile or continuous operating machine. Of course superconductor is not a perpetuum mobile but it allows preventing energy loses and maybe in future humankind will be able to advance in this direction.
In order to avoid resistance of metal scientist cool it in special way till very low temperatures so low that such gases as helium and nitrogen transfer into liquid condition. If all conductors will be superconductive it will be easier and more secure to transport electricity to our flats, factories, schools and nurseries easier and nature reserves will be used more economically. New cars, trains, spacecrafts and planes where this effect can be applied will be better and more perfect and damage to the environment will be much less.
Generations of superconductors
As we have already told low-temperature superconductors are called so because their superconductivity is provided by artifical temperature reducing till -269 C. For the same reason, in spite of the fact that today such superconductors are frequently applied in scientific equipment all over the world, their use is rather inconvenient, because expenses of expensive resources are required for achievement of such low temperature, and liquid helium, neon or hydrogen are used for cooling. Due to this in particular high-temperature superconductors are to be used in the future. Today two generations of high-temperature superconductors exist.