Perpetual temptation of perpetual motion
We can find a sample of perpetual motion not only in fairy tales but in everyday life: the Sun, the Moon and planets are perpetually translating by horizon, rivers flow to the seas non-stop, and backwater give way to a low tide. This motion incontrovertibly testified about perpetuum mobile artificial existing.
In the early 1870-s some enterprising man decided to build a sawmill in a small village Modvill of American state Ohio. This event would be unnoticed if the inventor didn’t decide to equip it with an engine of his own construction. The mechanism was supposed to work independently (without steam or water use), nonstop and unlimited time. Being absolutely sure in this idea bringing into life the American eve didn’t to make a model of his brainchild and immediately started the building. He set up a huge butt containing 100 buckets of water on powerful support about 4,5 m height and filled it manually together with his family. The water from the butt was supposed to pour down through a pipe in a small keg standing on the ground, and will turn a water wheel on its way.
The system of belts and levers will actuate a pump and a saw; the pump begins to pump over water from a keg upward, and the saw — to transform logs into boards. Having bought enough wood, the inventor employed workers and declared about sawmills’ start. Hundreds people came to look at the strange machine. The crane was opened, the wheel turned, and... while the crowd was laughing the water from the overflowed keg began flowing on the ground. An attempt to construct a constantly operating source of gratuitous energy failed. The owner of that sawmill was disappointed in the invention, sold everything, what there were buyers for, and was engaged in a more real business.
Eight and a half century of useless searches.
It is hard to say exactly who and when developed a project of perpetual mobile first. Tractate of Indian mathematic and astronomer Bhaskari Achari (1114-about 1185) written in about 1150 year is considered to be the earliest mention of it. In Europe the first known draft of perpetual mobile was made by a distinguished French engineer and architecture Villar de Onnecur in his “Book of pictures” (1235-1240 years). Less than 40 years passed and another French scientist Piere de Maricur composed a tractate about magnetic phenomena where he suggested receiving perpetual mobile with the help of constant magnet system.
These projects remained on a paper, and the first perpetuum mobile was constructed by Edward Somerset marchionesses Uorchestersky (1601-1667) court English king Charles 1 in the middle of XVII century. He was an unusually inventive person with rich imagination. The drawings of perpetuum mobile were at number 56 in his composition. They didn’t reached our time, and now it is only known, what the machine looked like a wheel more than 4 m diameter, and 14 cargoes 2 kg each were placed on its circle.
A certain device shifted cargoes from one side of wheel to 0,3 m further from an axis, than from another. A perpetuum mobile was activated in the London Tower. According to responses of contemporaries (in particular, the duke of Hamilton and the King himself), test passed successfully and caused delight of the present public. However the marquis neglected the engine and came back to it no more for some reason...
Idea of the marquis Uorchestersky - a wheel having a constant overweight on the one side and due to this continuously turning by gravity, - generated lots of projects and designs. All of them, however, didn't justify hopes and refused to work. But the tempting purpose is to get a energy from nothing and for nothing — urged on inventors.
Time passed and engines became more complicated. People tried to force the work pouring water in a wheel from one reservoir in another or heavy spheres rolling by trenches. Liquids were lifted up by means of the pump. Pouring out, they were rotating the turbine actuating in its turn the same pump. Instead of pump capillary forces and seminontight membranes were tried to be used which divided the liquids with different density.
Going back to ideas of Marikur people created various designs with constant magnets. When in the end of XIX century electric machines of direct current appeared they were tried to be connected so that the electromotor turned the generator, its feeding... Almost every inventor hoped to receive from the design surplus of energy and to use it for useful work. Despite all shifts, perpetuum mobile artifical persistently did not want to be become a reality. There were also people who clearly understood all hopelessness of the idea.
Searches of perpetuum mobile, how many foolish ideas you released in the world!
The author of these words is the great Leonardo da Vinci. It was he who approved that any pattern of loads independently of their location – on the wheel or on the lever always comes back to equilibrium.
Notes of the great scientist, unfortunately, were unreadable it was possible to read them only in the end of XVIII century. After 100 years after Leonardo death, knowing nothing about its work, Englishman John Uilkins (the bishop of Chester) conducted his own researches came to the same conclusion.
However there was one more widespread type of mechanical perpetuums mobile which couldn't be investigated by method of da Vinci and Wilkins. Perpetual motion "was provided" with a heavy chain or a belt thrown to one longer part through system of blocks. The Netherlands engineer, mechanic and mathematician Simon Stevin (1548-1620) proved that such mechanical system was also incapable to provide perpetual motion.
General theory proved that perpetuum mobile artifical of any type doesn’t exist appeared many years later.