What are nanotechnologies
Recently a word “nanotechnology” can be often heard. If any of scientists is asked what is this and for what nanotechnologies are necessary, his answer will be brief: “Nanotechnologies change common properties of a substance. They change the world and make it better”. Scientists say that nanotechnologies will find application in many spheres of activity: in industry, energetic, in space researches, in medicine and in many other spheres. For example tiny nanorobots able to enter in any cell of human body will quickly treat these or that sicknesses and to operate in the way that even the most qualified surgeon is not able to do. Due to nanotechnologies “smart homes” will appear. There people will not do any boring household cares. “Smart things” and “smart dust” will do everything themselves. People will wear clothes that will not be dirty, moreover informing the owner about lunch or shower time. Due to nanotechnologies mobile cells and computers that can be packed as a handkerchief and carried in a pocket will be invented. In a word scientists – nanotechnologists are really determined to change our life essentially.
What is nanotechnology?
And how it can change the properties of things? The word “nanotechnology” consists of 2 words – “nano” and “technology”.
“Nano” is a Greek word that means 1 milliard part of anything for example meter.
Nanometer is so less than meter as common pea is less than the Earth. If human height was 1 nanometer than thickness of a list of paper would seem to human being to be equal to distance between Moscow to Tula and this is as many as 170 km! A word “technologies” means creation of what people need. And “nanotechnologies” means creation of what people need of atoms and groups of atoms (they are called nanoparts) with the help of special devices. Scientists decided to consider nanoparts everything that has size from 1 to 100 nanometers. There are two ways of receiving nanoparts. The fist is more simple is called “from top downward”. Fed stocks are milled in different ways till the part becomes nanosized. The second way is more complicated one. Nanoparts are received by unification of separate atoms “bottom-up”. Scientists consider this way to be the future of nanotechnologies. The first way of nanoparts by milling material till the part becomes nanosized. The second one is receiving nanoparts by unification of atoms in nanopart by different ways. The last way seems to be like work with a constructor. But atoms and molecules are used as details from which scientists develop new nanomaterials and nanodevices.